Manufacturing processes are planned techniques that bring physical as well as chemical changes to work material.

A manufacturing process is generally completed as a unit operation, which implies that it is a single step in the sequence of steps needed to change the beginning material into a final product.

Manufacturing operations can be isolated into two essential types:

(1) Processing operations.

(2) Assembly operations.

A processing operation transforms a work material from one condition of completion to a more advanced condition that is nearer to the final desired product.

It adds esteem by changing the calculation properties, or appearance of the beginning material.

The normally processing operations are displayed on discrete work parts, but however processing operations are also applicable to assembled items (e.g., painting a spot-welded car body).

An assembly operation joins at least parts to make a new entity, called an assembly, subassembly, or some other term that refers to the joining process (e.g., a welded assembly is called a weldment).

Some of the average processes utilized in modern manufacturing date from antiquity.


A processing operation utilizes energy to modify a work part’s shape, physical properties, or appearance to increase the value of the material.

The forms of energy include mechanical, thermal, electrical, and chemical.

The energy is applied in a controlled way by means of machinery and tooling.

Human energy may also be needed but the human workers are typically employed to control the machines, oversee the operations, and load and unload parts before and after each cycle of operation.

Forging & Extrusion
(a) Forging & (b) Extrusion

Material is taken into the process, energy is applied by the machinery and tooling to change the material, and the finish work part exits the process.

Most production operations produce waste or scrap, either as a natural aspect of the process (e.g., eliminating material, as in machining) or intermittent adequate pieces.

It is an important objective in manufacturing to diminish waste in either of these forms.

Turning, Drilling & Milling
(a) Turning, (b) Drilling & (c) Milling

More than one handling operation is normally needed to change the beginning material into final form.

The operations are acted in the specific sequence needed to achieve the geometry and condition defined by the design specification.

Three categories of processing operations are distinguished:

(1) Shaping operations.

(2) Property-enhancing operations.

(3) Surface processing operations.


Most shape preparing operations apply heat, mechanical force, or a mix of these to effect a change in geometry of the work material.

There are various ways to classify the shaping processes.

The arrangement utilized in this book is based on the state of the beginning material, by which we have four categories:

(1) Solidification processes, in which the beginning material is a heated fluid or semi fluid that cools and solidifies to form the part geometry.

Casting & Molding process
Casting & Molding process

(2) Particulate handling, in which the beginning material is a powder, and the powders are formed and heated into the ideal geometry.

Particulate processing
Particulate processing

(3) Deformation processes, in which the beginning material is a ductile solid (commonly metal) that is deformed to shape the part.

(4) Material removal processes, in which the starting material is a solid (ductile or brittle), from which material is removed so that the resulting part has the desired geometry.


The second most significant type of part processing is performed to improve mechanical or physical properties of the work material.

These processes don’t modify the shape of the part, except unintentionally in some cases.

The most important property-enhancing processes include heat treatments, which involves different annealing and strengthening processes for metals and glasses.

Sintering of powdered metals and ceramics is also a heat treatment that strengthens a pressed powder metal workpart.


Surface processing operations include

(1) Cleaning,

(2) Surface treatments, and

(3) Coating and thin film deposition processes.

Cleaning involves both chemical and mechanical processes to eliminate dirt, oil, and other contaminants from the surface.

Surface treatments involves mechanical working like as shot peening and sand blasting, and physical processes like diffusion and ion implantation.

Coating and thin film deposition processes apply a coating of material to the exterior surface of the workpart.

Normal coating processes involve electroplating, anodizing of aluminum, organic coating (call it painting), and porcelain enameling.

Thin film deposition processes involves physical vapor deposition and chemical vapor deposition to develop extremely thin coatings of different substances.


The second basic type of manufacturing operation is assembly, in which atleast two separate components are combine to form a new entity.

Parts of the new entity are joined either permanently or semi permanently.

Permanent joining processes include welding, brazing, soldering, and adhesive bonding.

They form a joint between components that cannot be easily disconnected.

Certain mechanical assembly technique can be easily fasten to two (or more) components together in a joint that can be advantageously disassemble.

The use of screws, bolts, and other threaded fasteners are essential traditional techniques in this category.

Other mechanical assembly techniques form a more permanent connection; these include rivets, press fitting, and expansion fits.

Some unique joining and fastening techniques are utilized in the assembly of electronic products.

Some of the methods are identical to or are adaptations of the preceding processes, for
example, soldering.

Electronic assembly is concerned essentially with the gathering of parts for eg. integrated circuit packages to printed circuit boards to deliver the complex circuits used in so many of today’s products.


It produces large quantities at lower cost.

It help to simplify your product base.

It make allocating costs much easier.

Solve your inventory management worries.

It improve communication and staff morale.


Poor Quality.

Low Labor Content.

High Transportation Costs.

Extended Supply Chain.

Lack of Control.

Increased Time-to-Market.

Loss of Intellectual Property.


Manufacturing is the handling of raw materials or parts into finished goods with the help of tools, human labor, machinery, and chemical processing.

Large-scale manufacturing permits for the mass development of goods by u utilizing assembly line processes and advanced technologies as core assets.

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