Hello Readers, welcome to your own website to understand each and every topic related to the manufacturing process where we transform complex content into simpler ones. In this article, we are focused to cover the quenching process, wetting kinematics, advantages, disadvantages, and applications.


Quenching is process of rapidly cooling a material from high temperature.

The thickness of the material to be quenched alongside the pace of cooling
expected assists with picking the quenching medium.

The medium for this process has to be picked cautiously.

On the off chance that an quenching medium that cools more slow than the required rate is picked, the quenching isn’t effective in delivering the required microstructures and hence properties.

Then again, if an quenching medium that cools quicker than the necessary rate is utilized, at that point that can at times prompt defects like warping and ceacking.

Previously it was shown that the cooling rate and the shape of the cooling curve influence the course of phase transformations,residual stresses and distortion.

In quench hardening, fast cooling rates, depending on the chemical composition of the steel and its section size, are habitually applied to prevent diffusion controlled changes in the pearlite range and to
get a design consisting essentially of martensite and bainite.

In case, the reduction of undesirable thermal and transformational stresses because of volume changes generally requires more slower cooling rates.

This process therefore require the selection of cooling rates that
are sufficiently quick to allow the desired microstructure to form but slow enough to minimize residual stresses and distortion.

These considerations have resulted in different quenching strategies like direct quenching, interfered with quenching, spray quenching, and gas and fog quenching.

Direct quenching, the most well known quenching procedure, refers to the quenching of the part from the austenitizing temperature straight forwardly to room temperature by immersion into a vaporizable
fluid quenchant.

Petroleum arrangements or aqueous polymer arrangement are regularly used for this process.

Interrupted quenching consists of rapidly quenching steel from the austenitizing temperature to a temperature above the Ms temperature, where it is held for a time sufficient to affect the desired transformation and then cooled in air.

Cooling curves for (a) Direct quenching, (b) marquenching, (c) austempering and (d) isothermal annealing
Cooling curves for (a) Direct quenching, (b) marquenching, (c) austempering and (d) isothermal annealing

Interrupted quenching comprises three different methods marquenching, austempering, and isothermal annealing which vary in the temperature at which quenching is interrupted and the ideal opportunity for which the steel is held at this temperature.

The quenchants usually used for interrupted quenching are molten salt baths and specialty oils such as martempering oils.

Marquenching consists rapidly quenching the steel to a temperature just above the Ms temperature, holding it at this temperature to equalize the temperature throughout the workpiece, and then removing it from the bath before transformation into bainite begins.

The martensite structure formed during marquenching is the equivalents as after direct quenching; however, residual stresses are minimized owing to the more homogeneous temperature distribution throughout the part and slower cooling rate during martensite formation.

Austempering is similar to marquenching in that the steel is rapidly quenched from the austenitizing temperature to a temperature above Ms but differs in that the workpiece is held at temperature for sufficient time to allow an isothermal transformation into bainite.

Comparative with untempered martensite, bainite has more toughness and strength that would be formed by marquenching.

Martensite formed during direct quenching and marquenching is frequently tempered, due to tempered martensite display a more homogeneous elemental distribution and improved toughness and strength.

Isothermal annealing, differs from marquenching and austempering in that the bath temperature is sufficiently high that isothermal transformation into pearlite occurs.

Pearlite exhibits high toughness and sufficient strength to be the optimal structure for parts for example, wires or cables and railroad rails.


The wetting process can be strongly influenced by the addition of additives.

Wetting process on CrNi steel
Wetting process on CrNi steel

Wetting arrangements that were gotten in water with different chemical admixtures.

On the surface of the sample, a polymer film forms that gives a uniform breakdown of the vapor cover and minimize heat transfer in the lower temperature range.

At that point when the polymer film has totally redissolved, heat transfer is
achieved entirely by convection.

The speed of the spreading wetting front and the time interval of the simultaneous presence of film boiling and nucleate boiling can be strongly affected by changing the physical properties of the quenchant and the sample.

The items varied are:

Kind of quenchant as portrayed by its boiling temperature, viscosity, thermal capacity, and surface tension.

Additives to the quenchant, and their concentration.

Temperature and agitation rate of the quenchant.

Thermal characteristics of the body and its transformation behavior.

Surface roughness of the body and surface layers.

Geometry and initial temperature distribution of the sample.


The material that is properly passed through this process is more durable and has more tensile strength.

Hence, this process enhances the durability of the metal.

Quenching is a very easy and simple process relative to the other heat treatment processes.

Quenching takes a very less amount of time and it is the most effective of performed carefully.


This process needs a quite complex electrical equipment.

The need of technical operation requirements are high and because of this the time of the steel in the water must be strictly controlled.

The quality is not good, if it not controlled properly, it’s easy to produce overburnt, decarbonization, the unequal and other defects.


In metallurgy, this process is most commonly used to harden steel by inducing a martensite transformation, where the steel must be rapidly cooled through its eutectoid point, the temperature at which austenite becomes unstable.


We have covered all the important concepts related to quenching process. Hope you all are crystal clear with understanding all the concepts mentioned here. If you have any questions please use the comments section to get in touch with us. Till then have fun and always keep reading!


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